Explain at least two types of cellular damage that are largely responsible for progression from reversible to irreversible cellular injury.

Explain at least two types of cellular damage that are largely
responsible for progression from reversible to irreversible cellular

Peer Response 1:

Lauren Koscal posted

Two types of cellular damage responsible for progression from
reversible to irreversible cellular injury are hypoxic injury and
chemical injury.. Hypoxia is the single most common cause of cellular
injury (McCance et al., 2019) Hypoxia is the result of insufficient
oxygen supply and is primarily caused by a decrease in red blood cell
production, loss of hemoglobin function, poisoning of cytochromes, as
well as respiratory and cardiovascular system diseases. Ischemia, which
the most common cause of hypoxia, is the result of reduction in blood
supply. Reduction in oxygen supply to tissues ultimately leads to tissue
death if not treated within a timely manner.  “Time is muscle” is a
well known phrase for severity and extent of myocardial ischemic injury
resulting from coronary occlusion could be altered with adequate, timely
intervention (Abreu, 2019)

            Another form of cellular injury is the result of chemical
injury. Chemical injury occurs when cellular response pathways are
disturbed caused by oxidative stress, heat shock response, DNA damage
response, ER stress, mental stress, and inflammation. Examples of
chemicals are arsenic and cyanide which cause rapid cell death. Abuse of
some over-the-counter medications, abuse of heroin, morphine, opioids
and other substances can cause cellular injury, and can potentially lead
to death (McCance et al., 2019)  


Abreu L. M. (2019). Time is Muscle. Arquivos brasileiros de cardiologia, 112(4), 408–409.


McCance, K.L. (2019). Pathophysiology: The biologic basis for disease in adults and children.

(8th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Elsevier.

Peer Response 2:

Tiffany Spitzner posted

Hyperplasia is an increase/overgrowth of cells in tissues and
organs,second to increased cellular division. This occurs from an
increased production of cells because it experienced an abnormal
exposure of stressors/injury that occurred for a prolonged period.
(Brashers, Rote, McCance, & Huether, 2019) Hyperplasia is
responsible for permanent cellular damage because when the stressor is
not amended or controlled, the cells continue to grow and change
simultaneously. (Brashers et al., 2019) The cells begin to undergo
malignant transformation.
Dysplasia is an abnormal development of a cell in shape, size, and body.
(Brashers et al., 2019) This type of cellular change is related to a
disordered growth of the cells of the epithelium, which is the tissue
that lines the surface of organs and vessels throughout the body.
(Brand, Ylvisaker, Gelfand, & Pope II, 1980) The occurrence of these
abnormal cells signal change has occurred. Cellular changes that
involve the surface of the epithelium may be reversed/corrected. This
corrected change can occur if the stressors/injury is removed. If the
full epithelium is involved, it is considered a pre-invasive neoplasm.
(Brashers et al., 2019) Hyperplasia and Dysplasia are both cellular
changes that occur for any number of causes. Chronic inflammation,
hormonal changes, and exposure from injury, such as toxins or hypoxia.
These examples of chronic stressors that cause cellular injury, are
responsible for irreversible damage if prolonged exposure occurs to the
cells. (Brashers et al., 2019)

Barrett Esophagus; Treatment of Barrett’s esophagus may lower risk of esophageal cancer. (2011). Retrieved from www.proquest.com/snhu.edu
Brand, D., Ylvisaker, T., Gelfand, M., & Pope II, C. (1980, April
10). Regression of Columnar Esophageal (Barrett’s) Epithelium after
Anti-Reflux Surgery. The New England

Brashers, V. L., Rote, N. S., McCance, K. L., & Huether, S. E.
(2019). Pathophysiology. The Biologic Basis for Disease in Adults and
Children (8th ed.). St. Louis, Missouri: ELSEVIER, INC.
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